Major in Forensic Chemistry

Forensic Chemistry is a field in which many opportunities exist within law enforcement agencies and private companies. There is a critical shortage of qualified professionals in the field. Graduates of this program will be well prepared for employment in the forensic field with minimal on-the-job training or to pursue a graduate degree.

The major in Forensic Chemistry requires the completion of all the required and ancillary courses that are listed below, as well as satisfying the university’s Core Curriculum requirements. Students who wish to earn internship credit (CHEM 395) for work in a crime laboratory must have a GPA of 3.00 or higher, must have attained junior class rank, and must pass a background ­investigation.

The Forensic Chemistry major is offered in three separate tracks as described below. These tracks provide the student with options to prepare for the specialized areas of forensic science in the professional work force or for graduate programs. Students are expected to declare their track of study by the end of their sophomore year.

A student may repeat no more than two courses, including multiple attempts at the same course, required for the Forensic Chemistry major. This includes all foundation courses, as well as required courses for the major.

For further information, please contact one of the following:

Mark Profili: Smith Hall 514A; 410-704-2668; mprofili@towson.edu

Kelly Elkins: Smith Hall 514F; 410-704-6217; kmelkins@towson.edu

Ellen Hondrogiannis: Smith Hall 563; 410-704-5043; ehondrogiannis@towson.edu

Cynthia Zeller: Smith Hall 573; 410-704-2170; czeller@towson.edu

Courses Required of all Forensic Chemistry tracks

CHEM 131GENERAL CHEMISTRY I LECTURE3
CHEM 131LGENERAL CHEMISTRY I LABORATORY1
CHEM 132GENERAL CHEMISTRY II LECTURE3
CHEM 132LGENERAL CHEMISTRY II LABORATORY1
CHEM 210ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY5
CHEM 301PROFESSIONAL ETHICS FOR SCIENTISTS3
CHEM 331ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I5
CHEM 332ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II5
CHEM 351BIOCHEMISTRY I3
FRSC 367FORENSIC CHEMISTRY3
FRSC 368PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES IN FORENSIC SCIENCE3
FRSC 440FORENSIC SCIENCE, EMERGENCY MEDICINE, AND DEATH ANALYSIS3
Total Units38

Ancillary Courses (Required of all Forensic Chemistry tracks)

ANTH 357INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC CRIME ANALYSIS3
ANTH 457ADVANCED FORENSIC INVESTIGATION3
BIOL 201INTRODUCTION TO CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS4
COSC 175GEN COMPUTER SCI4
CRMJ 254INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE3
CRMJ 384ADVANCED CRIMINAL LAW3
MATH 273CALCULUS I4
Select one of the following:8
GENERAL PHYSICS I; NON CALCULUS-BASED
and GENERAL PHYSICS II; NON CALCULUS-BASED
GENERAL PHYSICS I CALCULUS-BASED
and GENERAL PHYSICS II CALCULUS-BASED
Total Units32

General Forensic Science Track

This track is intended for students who are considering employment in a drug analysis, trace evidence analysis or DNA analysis laboratory, or to pursue a graduate degree in a non-specialized forensic master’s program.

In addition to the university’s Core Curriculum courses and the required and ancillary courses for all Forensic Chemistry tracks, the following courses are required for the General Forensic Science track:

BIOL 309GENETICS4
BIOL 409MOLECULAR BIOLOGY4
BIOL 410MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY2
CHEM 310INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS 4
CHEM 323INORGANIC CHEMISTRY4
CHEM 345PRINCIPLES PHYSICAL CHEM3
CHEM 480CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY3
FRSC 363CHEMISTRY OF DANGEROUS DRUGS3
MATH 231BASIC STATISTICS3
or MATH 237 ELEMENTARY BIOSTATISTICS
Total Units30

Trace Evidence/Drug Analysis Track

This track is intended for students who desire a strong chemistry and instrumental analysis education and are considering a profession in a forensic chemistry laboratory or graduate program specializing in the analysis of trace evidence (fibers, paint, soil, flammables, explosives, etc.) or in the analysis of illegal drugs and toxicology.

In addition to the university’s Core Curriculum courses and the required and ancillary courses of all Forensic Chemistry tracks, the following courses are required of the Trace Evidence/Drug Analysis track:

CHEM 310INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS 4
CHEM 323INORGANIC CHEMISTRY4
CHEM 345PRINCIPLES PHYSICAL CHEM3
CHEM 372PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY2
CHEM 480CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY3
FRSC 363CHEMISTRY OF DANGEROUS DRUGS3
MATH 231BASIC STATISTICS3
or MATH 237 ELEMENTARY BIOSTATISTICS
Total Units22

DNA Track

This track is intended for students who desire a strong biochemistry and molecular biology education and are considering a profession in a forensic laboratory or graduate program specializing in body fluid and tissue analysis, and human identification using serology and DNA technology.

In addition to the university’s Core Curriculum courses and the required and ancillary courses of all Forensic ­Chemistry tracks, the following courses are required of the DNA track:

BIOL 309GENETICS4
BIOL 409MOLECULAR BIOLOGY4
BIOL 410MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY2
CHEM 356BIOCHEMISTRY LAB2
CHEM 357BIOCHEMISTRY II3
FRSC 420BODY FLUID ANALYSIS4
MATH 237ELEMENTARY BIOSTATISTICS4
Total Units23

General Forensic Science Track Suggested Four-Year Plan

Freshman
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
CHEM 1313CHEM 1323
CHEM 131L1CHEM 132L1
MATH 211 or 2733PHYS 211 or 2414
COSC 1754BIOL 2014
ENGL 102 (Core 2)3MATH 231 or 2373
 TSEM 102 (Core 1)3
 14 18
Sophomore
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
CHEM 2105BIOL 3094
CHEM 3315CHEM 3104
CRMJ 2543CHEM 3325
PHYS 212 or 2414CRMJ 3843
 17 16
Junior
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
ANTH 3573CHEM 3234
BIOL 4094FRSC 4403
CHEM 3513ANTH 4573
FRSC 3673Core3
FRSC 3683Core3
Core3 
 19 16
Senior
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
BIOL 4102CHEM 3013
CHEM 3453CHEM 4803
FRSC 3633Core/Elective3
Core/Elective3Core/Elective3
Core/Elective3Core/Elective3
 14 15
Total Units 129

Trace Evidence/Drug Analysis Track Suggested Four-Year Plan

Freshman
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
CHEM 1313BIOL 2014
CHEM 131L1CHEM 1323
MATH 211 or 2733CHEM 132L1
COSC 1754MATH 231 or 2373
ENGL 102 (Core 2)3TSEM 102 (Core 1)3
 14 14
Sophomore
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
CHEM 2105CHEM 3104
CHEM 3315CHEM 3325
CRMJ 2543CRMJ 3843
PHYS 211 or 2414PHYS 212 or 2424
Core3 
 20 16
Junior
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
CHEM 3513CHEM 3234
FRSC 3683FRSC 4403
ANTH 3573ANTH 4573
FRSC 3673Core3
Core3Core3
 15 16
Senior
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
CHEM 3453CHEM 3013
FRSC 3633CHEM 3722
Core3CHEM 4803
Core3Core/Elective3
Core/Elective3Core/Elective3
 Core/Elective3
 15 17
Total Units 127

DNA Track Suggested Four-Year Plan

 
Freshman
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
CHEM 131
131L
4BIOL 2014
COSC 1754CHEM 132
132L
4
ENGL 102 (Core 2)3MATH 2374
MATH 2734TSEM 102 (Core 1)3
 15 15
Sophomore
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
CHEM 2105BIOL 3094
CHEM 3315CHEM 3325
CRMJ 2543CRMJ 3843
PHYS 211 or 2414PHYS 212 or 2424
 17 16
Junior
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
ANTH 3573ANTH 4573
BIOL 4094CHEM 3562
CHEM 3513FRSC 4403
FRSC 3673Core3
FRSC 3683Core3
Core 3Core3
 19 17
Senior
Term 1UnitsTerm 2Units
BIOL 4102CHEM 3013
CHEM 3573FRSC 4204
Core/Elective3Core/Elective3
Core/Elective3Core/Elective3
Core/Elective3 
 14 13
Total Units 126

1. Apply the principles of crime scene investigation, evidence collection, preservation and chain of custody.
2. Demonstrate mastery of the tools of scientific inquiry in forensic analysis.
3. Understand the importance of ethics in forensic science.
4. Communicate analytical/research findings and present court testimony.
5. Present clear and persuasive written evidence of analytical findings.
6. Demonstrate proficiency in the use and knowledge of specific software programs relevant in the field of forensic chemistry.

Chemistry Courses

CHEM 100 CHEMISTRY AND CURRENT PROBLEMS (3)

Chemistry concepts and their application to current topics such as environment, energy, food, and heath-related chemistry. Three lecture demonstration hours. Gen Ed II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences.

CHEM 103 FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMISTRY (3)

Development of reasoning and quantitative skills for problem solving. Introduction to atomic structure, chemical reactions, chemical nomenclature, formulas, symbols and equations, basic skills of laboratory work. Three lecture hours. Not for credit toward Chemistry major or minor. Does not satisfy University Core requirement. S/U grading.

CHEM 104 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY (4)

Principles of chemistry that are relevant to environmental issues, including water quality, nutrient pollution, air pollution, and specific classes of environmental contaminants. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours. Prerequisite: three years of high school mathematics. Gen Ed II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 112 HONORS CHEMISTRY AND CURRENT PROBLEMS (3)

Discussion of a selected aspect of chemistry and its applications to technology, environment and society. Topics will vary. Three lecture-demonstration hours. Prerequisites: high school chemistry recommended. Honors College. GenEd II.A.

CHEM 115 HONORS CHEMISTRY FOR ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS I (4)

An introduction to the concepts of general chemistry, including states of matter, atomic structure and periodic table, molecular structure, chemical reactions, intermolecular forces, solutions, buffers and pH and radio activity. Laboratory includes data handling and chemical and instrumental techniques. May not be used as a prerequisite for the Chemistry major program. Three lecture hours and one three hour laboratory. Prerequisite: MATH 115 or MATH 119 (either may be taken concurrently). Must be admitted to the Honors College. Gen Ed II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 121 ALLIED HEALTH CHEMISTRY I LECTURE (3)

Atomic and molecular structure, stoichiometry, chemical reactions, states of matter, solutions, intermolecular forces, acids, bases and buffers, chemical equilibrium, reaction energies and rates. Not open to those who successfully completed CHEM 105/ CHEM 115. CHEM 121 is a quantitative course and students are expected to be proficient in algebraic manipulations, exponentials, logarithms and graphical interpretation. Corequisite: CHEM 121L. Core: Biological and Physical Sciences or GenEd II.A.

CHEM 121L ALLIED HEALTH CHEMISTRY I LABORATORY (1)

Laboratory experiments to support concepts of Allied Health Chemistry I Lecture. Not open to those who successfully completed CHEM 105/ CHEM 115. Corequisite: CHEM 121. Core: Biological and Physical Sciences or GenEd II.A. Lab/class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 122 ALLIED HEALTH CHEMISTRY II LECTURE (3)

Introduction to organic chemistry and biochemistry using a functional group approach, physical properties and important reactions, enzyme catalysis, chemistry and biology of nucleic acids. Not open to those who successfully completed CHEM 106. Corequisite: CHEM 122L (Allied Health Chemistry II Laboratory); CHEM 122L must be taken concurrently. Prerequisite: CHEM 121/ CHEM 121L. Core: Biological & Physical Sciences or GenEd II.A.

CHEM 122L ALLIED HEALTH CHEMISTRY II LABORATORY (1)

Laboratory experiments to support concepts of Allied Health Chemistry II Lecture. Not open to those who successfully completed CHEM 106. Corequisite: CHEM 122 (Allied Health Chemistry I Lecture); CHEM 122 must be taken concurrently. Core: Biological & Physical Sciences or GenEd II.A. Lab/class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 131 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I LECTURE (3)

Atomic and molecular structure; theories of bonding, stoichiometry; chemical reactions; gases; solutions. Open to science/math majors/minors only. Not open to those who successfully completed CHEM 110. CHEM 131 is a quantitative course and students are expected to be proficient in algebraic manipulations and graphical interpretation. Corequisite: CHEM 131L. Core: Biological & Physical Sciences or GenEd II.A Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 131L GENERAL CHEMISTRY I LABORATORY (1)

Laboratory experiments to support concepts of General Chemistry I Lecture. Not open to those who successfully completed CHEM 110. Corequisite: CHEM 131. GenEd II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 132 GENERAL CHEMISTRY II LECTURE (3)

Physical properties of liquids, solids and solutions, kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, chemical thermodynamics and electrochemistry. Not open to those who successfully completed CHEM 111. CHEM 132 is a quantitative course and students are expected to be proficient in algebraic manipulations, exponentials, logarithms and graphical interpretation. Corequisite: CHEM 132L. Prerequisites: CHEM 131 & CHEM 131L. Core: Biological & Physical Sciences or GenEd II.A.

CHEM 132L GENERAL CHEMISTRY II LABORATORY (1)

Laboratory experiments to support concepts of General Chemistry II Lecture. Not open to those who successfully completed CHEM 111. Corequisite: CHEM 132. GenEd II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 210 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (5)

Theory and practice of chemometrics, gravimetry, titrimetry, chromatography, electrochemistry, and spectrophotometry. Three lecture hours, one laboratory-lecture hour, and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and CHEM 132L. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 301 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS FOR SCIENTISTS (3)

Integrity of scientific literature and the responsibilities of scientists to associates and the public. Discussion of principles and case studies emphasizing the physical sciences. Not open to those who have successfully completed WRIT 335, CHEM 335 or IDNM 305. Does not count toward Chemistry major or minor. Requires grade of C or better to fulfill Core or GenEd requirement. Prerequisites: three courses in ASTR, BIOL, CHEM, ENVS, GEOL, PHYS, or PHSC and at least two courses with laboratory; ENGL 102. Core: Advanced Writing Seminar or GenEd I.D.

CHEM 310 INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS (4)

Theory and practice of spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrochemical instruments, their design and modification to solve practical problems. Three lecture hours and four laboratory hours. Prerequisite: CHEM 210. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 323 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (4)

Atomic Structure; Valence-bond, Molecular orbital, and crystal-field theories of bonding; structure and bonding in ionic and metallic solids; chemistry of main-group and transition-metal compounds; acid-base theories; organometallic compounds; syntheses and characterizations of main-group and transition-metal compounds. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours. Not open to students who successfully completed CHEM 321. Prerequisites: CHEM210 and CHEM331 or CHEM330. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 330 ESSENTIALS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (5)

A one-semester course in organic chemistry for non-chemistry majors taught on a conceptual basis. Emphasis will be on principles, mechanisms, and modern techniques. Laboratory will include synthesis and identification of organic compounds. Three lecture hours, one recitation hour and one three hour laboratory period. Prerequisite: CHEM 132 and CHEM 132L. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 331 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I (5)

Structure, stereochemistry, reactions and their mechanisms, preparation and properties of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, alkyl halides and alcohols. Laboratory techniques include purification, spectroscopic (IR, NMR) and chromatographic (GLPC) methods of identification, and synthesis. Three lecture hours, one hour of laboratory lecture, and one three-hour laboratory period. Prerequisite: CHEM 132 and CHEM 132L. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 332 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (5)

Structure, reactions and their mechanisms, preparation and properties of alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, amines, carbohydrates, etc. Laboratory emphasizes synthetic techniques and modern qualitative organic analysis using chemical reactions and IR, UV, and NMR. Three lecture hours, one hour of laboratory lecture and one three-hour laboratory period. Prerequisite: CHEM 331. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 345 PRINCIPLES PHYSICAL CHEM (3)

Empirical derivations of the unifying physical principles of chemistry. Emphasis on applications including environmental chemistry and biochemistry. Not open to students who successfully completed CHEM 340 or CHEM 341. Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and CHEM 132L and (MATH 211 or MATH 273) and (PHYS 211 or PHYS 241).

CHEM 346 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (3)

Theoretical principles unifying the vast body of chemical observations. Extensive use of differential and integral calculus in developing mathematical models describing the behavior of chemical systems. Prerequisites: CHEM 345, MATH 274, PHYS 212 or PHYS 242.

CHEM 351 BIOCHEMISTRY I (3)

An overview of the chemistry of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Basic enzyme catalysis and kinetics, biochemical genetics, membrane structure, bioenergetics, and analytical methods. General principles of metabolism applied to several major pathways. Three lecture hours. Prerequisite: CHEM 330 or CHEM 332.

CHEM 356 BIOCHEMISTRY LAB (2)

Physical methods in biochemistry including spectrophotometry, centrifugation and ultra-centrifugation, electrophoresis, and chromatography. Isolation and purification of proteins and nucleic acids. Enzyme kinetics and the binding of small molecules to macromolecules. One lecture hour and three laboratory hours. Prerequisite: CHEM 351 (may be taken concurrently). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 357 BIOCHEMISTRY II (3)

Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and their regulation, overview of amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, membrane structure and function, DNA-protein interactions and regulation of gene expression, and other topics in biochemistry. Prerequisite: CHEM 351.

CHEM 372 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY (2)

Introductory experiments in physical chemistry involving thermodynamics, kinetics and spectroscopy to characterize properties of materials and chemical systems. Four laboratory-lecture hours. Prerequisites: CHEM 210 and CHEM 345 (CHEM 345 may be taken concurrently). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

CHEM 391 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN CHEMISTRY I (1-3)

A laboratory or library problem in chemistry to be selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Students are required to submit a written report. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 units provided a different topic is taken. Prerequisite: consent of the instructor.

CHEM 392 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN CHEMISTRY II (1-3)

A laboratory or library problem in chemistry to be selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Students are required to submit a written report. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 units. Prerequisite: consent of the instructor.

CHEM 393 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN CHEMISTRY III (1-3)

A laboratory or library problem in chemistry to be selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Students are required to submit a written report. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 units. Prerequisite: consent of the instructor.

CHEM 394 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN CHEMISTRY IV (1-3)

A laboratory or library problem in chemistry to be selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Students are required to submit a written report. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 units. Prerequisite: consent of the instructor.

CHEM 395 INTERNSHIP IN CHEMISTRY (3)

Students will be given credit in this cooperative education program for approved experience in chemistry in the private or public sector. A portfolio of their work will be submitted by students and evaluated by the Chemistry Faculty. May be repeated once as CHEM 396 for a maximum of 6 credits. Graded S/U. Prerequisites: CHEM 332 and CHEM 210, 3.0 GPA overall and junior class standing.

CHEM 396 INTERNSHIP IN CHEMISTRY (3)

Students will be given credit in this cooperative education program for approved experience in chemistry. A written final report will be submitted by students. May be repeated for credit as CHEM 396 for a maximum of 6 units. Graded S/U. Prerequisite: CHEM 395.

CHEM 401 SEMINAR IN CHEMISTRY (1)

An introduction to chemical literature. Attendance at all seminars and presentation of seminars to the Chemistry Department on topics selected by the Chemistry faculty or selected by the student and approved by the faculty. One and one-half hour seminar period. Prerequisites: CHEM 210, CHEM 332, and CHEM 345 (CHEM 345 may be taken concurrently).

CHEM 450 ECOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3)

Examining diversity of natural products involved in biochemical interactions between plants, animals (including insects, humans, and other herbivores) and microbial flora. Effects that changes in the chemistry of these compounds have on function in ecological systems. Not open to students who have taken BIOL 450. Prerequisites: CHEM 330 or CHEM 331, and BIOL 201 or BIOL 202.

CHEM 461 ADVANCED LECTURE TOPICS (1-3)

Advanced studies in one of the major topics in chemistry. Content will depend on instructor. This course may be repeated for a maximum of 9 units with a different topic. Prerequisites: CHEM 345, CHEM 332 and consent of instructor.

CHEM 462 ADVANCED LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (1-2)

An advanced, focused laboratory in chemistry. Content will depend on the instructor. This course may be repeated for a maximum of 6 units as a laboratory experience with a different focus. Prerequisites: CHEM 332, CHEM 372 and consent of instructor.

CHEM 472 APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY (3)

Fate and transport of chemical contaminants; physico-chemical processes controlling pollutant partitioning and distribution; implications of chemical speciation on toxicity to biota. Prerequisites: CHEM 210; CHEM 330 or CHEM 332; or consent of instructor.

CHEM 480 CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY (3)

Study of the fate, effects, and mechanisms of action of toxicants; physical and biological factors affecting transport, transformation and toxicity of chemical stressors; emphasis on forensic and environmental applications. Prerequisites: CHEM 351, BIOL 201, or consent of instructor.

CHEM 491 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH IN CHEMISTRY I (1-3)

An original experimental or theoretical investigation to be conducted under the supervision of a faculty member. May be repeated for a total of 6 units as CHEM 492, etc. CHEM 491 may not be taken in student's final semester. Formal written report and/or oral presentation required. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

CHEM 492 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH IN CHEMISTRY II (1-3)

An original experimental or theoretical investigation to be conducted under the supervision of a faculty member. May be repeated for a total of 6 units as CHEM 492, etc. CHEM 492 may not be taken in student's final semester. Formal written report and/or oral presentation required. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

CHEM 493 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH IN CHEMISTRY III (1-3)

An original experimental or theoretical investigation to be conducted under the supervision of a faculty member. May be repeated for a total of 6 units as CHEM 491, 492, etc. CHEM 493 may not be taken in student's final semester. Formal written report and/or oral presentation required. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

CHEM 494 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH IN CHEMISTRY IV (1-3)

An original experimental or theoretical investigation to be conducted under the supervision of a faculty member. May be repeated for a total of 6 units as CHEM 491, 492, etc. CHEM 494 may not be taken in student's final semester. Formal written report and/or oral presentation required. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

CHEM 499 HONORS THESIS IN CHEMISTRY (2)

Writing of an honors thesis based on independent research done under the direction of a faculty member. Oral presentation of the work in a public seminar. Prerequisites: consent of instructor, and open only to students who have been approved as departmental honors candidates.

Forensic Science Courses

FRSC 363 CHEMISTRY OF DANGEROUS DRUGS (3)

A study of the chemistry, methods of detection and analysis of narcotics, depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens. Also, the influence of physiochemical properties upon the pharmacological effects of drug receptor interactions. Historical, forensic, and socio-economic implications associated with drug abuse will also be reviewed. Three lecture hours. Prerequisites: CHEM 210, CHEM 330 or CHEM 332.

FRSC 367 FORENSIC CHEMISTRY (3)

Introduction to chemical and physical analyses used by a modern crime laboratory in the evaluation of physical evidence encountered in criminal acts. Areas of concentration will include drug analysis, toxicology, forensic serology, explosives analysis, arson examination, firearms and tool marks, latent prints and trace evidence. Emphasis will be placed on the value of such examinations as presented by the expert witness in a criminal trial. Three lecture hours. Prerequisites: CHEM 210 and (CHEM 330 or CHEM 332).

FRSC 368 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES IN FORENSIC SCIENCE (3)

Introduction to the various professional practices encountered in forensic science including Laboratory Safety, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, Documentation, Ethics, Chain of Custody, and Expert Witness Testimony. Prerequisite: CHEM 367.

FRSC 420 BODY FLUID ANALYSIS (4)

Current methods and concepts in forensic biology with laboratory practice in identification and individualization of biological forensic samples by several different methods, including biochemical testing, antigen-antibody reactions, and DNA typing, representing best practice in forensic science. Prerequisites: FRSC 368, ANTH 357, BIOL 409 (may be taken concurrently).

FRSC 440 FORENSIC SCIENCE, EMERGENCY MEDICINE, AND DEATH ANALYSIS (3)

Overview of the principles of Forensic Science as it applies to emergency medicine in physical and sexual assaults, environmental contamination, natural mass disasters, terrorist attacks, and natural and suspicious deaths. Prerequisite: CHEM 367.

FRSC 467 FORENSIC ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (3)

Instruction and laboratory practice of analytical procedures used for analysis of arson, explosives and trace evidence. Laboratory work includes sample preparation and use of microscopes, FTIR, and GC/MS as well as analysis and interpretation of data. Use of conformity to standard protocols, calibration, and discriminant function analysis. Prerequisites: CHEM 210; FRSC 367 (may be taken concurrently).