Towson University is a member of the University System of Maryland (USM), which comprises 12 institutions, two regional higher education centers, and a system office.

A Board of Regents, consisting of 21 regents appointed by the governor, has oversight over the USM campuses and institutes.

The president and their designees are responsible for the day-to-day governance of the university. The Academic Senate and its committees develop university policies and procedures, with the senate also serving in an advisory capacity to the university president.