Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 100 HUMANISTIC BOTANY (3)

Selected botanical topics of interest to the non-science major. Topics will include poisonous plants, medicinal plants, plant hallucinogens, tree-ring dating, botanical genetics, bonsai and commercial uses of major plant groups. Not for biology major credit. No credit will be given to those who have successfully completed BIOL 205.

BIOL 103 HUMAN BIOLOGY (3)

Basic principles of human body processes in normal and certain abnormal conditions for non-science majors. The emphasis will be on physiology with sufficient anatomy for its understanding. Not for biology major credit. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213), BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) , or BIOL 325.

BIOL 105 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOL (3)

Introduction of the relationships between humans and the environment. Fundamentals of ecology, hydrology, demography, energy, and nutrient cycling will be covered, as well as the human impact on the use of the Earth's land, water and air resources. An emphasis is placed on five key themes: Human Population; Sustainability; Global Perspective; Urban World; and Values and Knowledge. GenEd II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences.

BIOL 117 HONORS BIOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF LIFE (4)

A broad-based, investigative course designed to introduce important issues in the biological sciences to the non-scientist. Major topics include human genetics, evolution, ecology, and environmental issues. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Not for students intending to pursue additional coursework in Biology nor for students from the College of Health Professions who require BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) & BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) and/or BIOL 315. Not for credit toward Biology major or minor. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 110, BIOL 112, BIOL 201. Prerequisite: Admission to the Honors College. GenEd II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences.

BIOL 120 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY [LECTURE] (3)

Biological principles common to plants and animals. Topics include scientific investigation, genetics, evolution, ecology and ethical issues in contemporary biology. Not for credit toward Biology major or minor. Not open to those who have successfully completed BIOL 110, BIOL 115, or BIOL 201. Corequisite: BIOL 120L. Core: Biological and Physical Sciences or GenEd II.A.

BIOL 120L PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY [LAB] (1)

Biological principles common to plants and animals. Topics include scientific investigation, genetics, evolution and ecology. Not for credit toward Biology major or minor. Not open to those who have successfully completed BIOL 110, 115, or 201. Corequisite: BIOL 120 (lecture). Successful completion of both satisfies GenEd II.A. or Core: Biological and Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 190 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY FOR THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS (4)

Basic principles of biology including process of scientific investigation, cells, macromolecules, metabolism, DNA, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Intended for College of Health Professions majors who will take additional biology courses. Not for Biology major/minor credit. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 201. GenEd II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 192 HONORS INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY FOR THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS (4)

Basic principles of biology including process of scientific investigation, cells, macromolecules, metabolism, DNA, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Intended for College of Health Professions majors who will take additional biology courses. Not for Biology major/minor credit. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 201. GenEd II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Honors College course. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 201 INTRODUCTION TO CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS (4)

An introduction to biology, including biologically important molecules, cell and tissue structure, respiration, photosynthesis, mitosis, meiosis and genetics. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Course designed for BIOL and related science majors; taking this course to fulfill Core credit generally not advised (see BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L as alternative). Core/GenEd credit not given for both BIOL 201 and BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L. Prerequisite: CHEM 131/ CHEM 131L [CHEM 110] (may be taken concurrently) or one year high school chemistry. GenEd II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 202 INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION (4)

Population dynamics, community patterns and processes, origin and diversity of species, natural selection, speciation, and population genetics; emphasis on developing testable hypotheses and quantitative analysis of biological data. Three laboratory hours per week. Course designed for BIOL and related science majors; taking this course to fulfill GenEd credit generally not advised (see BIOL 120 and BIOL 120L as alternative). Prerequisite: BIOL 117, BIOL 120 / BIOL 120L, BIOL 190 or BIOL 201, or high school General Biology. GenEd II.A or Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 203 HONORS BIOL I:CELL&GENETICS (4)

An introduction to biology, including biologically important molecules, cell and tissue structure, respiration, photosynthesis, mitosis, meiosis and genetics. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Major credit not given for BIOL 201. Honors College Course. Prerequisite: CHEM 131/ CHEM 131L [CHEM 110] (may be taken concurrently) or one year high school chemistry. GenEd II.A.

BIOL 204 EDUCATIONAL AND CAREER PLANNING FOR THE BIOLOGIST (1)

Exploration of undergraduate educational opportunities, graduate and professional education, career options, and career preparation in the Biological Sciences. Online course. Prerequisite: BIOL major.

BIOL 205 GENERAL BOTANY (4)

Plant structure, development, reproduction and diversity of life forms by interrelating hormones, physiological processes and environmental relationships with respect to the whole plant. Emphasis on flowering plants. Average of three laboratory or discussion hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 190 or BIOL 201. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 207 GENERAL ZOOLOGY (4)

Major animal phyla. A comparative approach to the structure, function, development and ecology of the animal kingdom. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 202. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 208 BIODIVERSITY (3)

Phylogenetics and the evolution of major groups of organisms: brief survey of representatives of the five kingdoms; development and the evolution of form; case studies on form and function; the biodiversity crisis. Three lecture hours a week. Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and BIOL 202.

BIOL 210 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY (3)

An interactive online study of the language of medicine including word parts, compound word construction, and medical terms used to describe the major body systems as used in medical records, documents, and discussions among medical professionals. Intended for students planning to apply to graduate school in some area of biomedicine, e.g. physician assistant school; medical, dental, or veterinary school; or a graduate program in a biomedical research field. At the completion of this course, students are expected to correctly use medical terms in both written and oral communication. Prerequisite: BIOL 190 or BIOL 201.

BIOL 215 ESSENTIALS OF MICROBIOLOGY (4)

Pathogenesis of bacteria and viruses, their interactions with the human body, and methods of treatment and prevention. Three hours of laboratory per week. Recommended for Health Science majors. Not for Biology major credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and CHEM 121/ CHEM 121L (CHEM 105). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 221 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I [LECTURE] (3)

Cell biology, histology skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Not open to students who have successfully completed BIOL 213. To receive major Biology credit, BIOL 214 or BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L must also be completed. Course enrollment is limited to two attempts including withdrawals. Exceptions to this limit may be requested by contacting the Course Coordinator. Corequisite: BIOL 221L (lab). Prerequisite: BIOL 190 or BIOL 201.

BIOL 221L HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I [LAB] (1)

Cell biology, histology skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Average of three laboratory hours per week. To receive major Biology credit, BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L [BIOL 214] must also be completed. Course enrollment is limited to two attempts including withdrawals. Exceptions to this limit may be requested by contacting the Course Coordinator. Corequisite: BIOL 221 (lecture). Prerequisite: BIOL 190, BIOL 192, or BIOL 201. Lab/class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 222 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II [LECTURE] (3)

Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, endocrine and reproductive systems. Not open to those who have successfully completed BIOL 214. Students who successfully completed BIOL 325 may not take this course without departmental approval. To receive Biology major credit, BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L [BIOL 213] must also be completed. Course enrollment is limited to two attempts including withdrawals. Exceptions to this limit may be requested by contacting the Course Coordinator. Corequisite: BIOL 222L (lab). Prerequisite: BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L [ BIOL 213].

BIOL 222L HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II [LAB] (1)

Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, endocrine and reproductive systems. Average of three laboratory hours per week. To receive Biology major credit, BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L [BIOL 213] must also be completed. Course enrollment is limited to two attempts including withdrawals. Exceptions to this limit may be requested by contacting the Course Coordinator. Corequisite: BIOL 222 (lecture). Prerequisite: BIOL 221 / BIOL 221L [BIOL 213]. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 301 FIELD AND NATURAL SCIENCE (3)

Physical and biological components of various environments and their interrelationships with each other and humans. Emphasis on field studies observation with the application of findings to classroom teaching and learning in the elementary and middle school classroom. Not for credit towards BIOL major, minor, or MS degree in Biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 190, BIOL 201 or BIOL 202.

BIOL 303 LIFE SCIENCES (3)

Living organisms in the environment, emphasizing modes of scientific inquiry and the utilization of living organisms in the classroom. Not for credit toward the Biology major or minor, or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 120 and BIOL 120L, BIOL 190 or BIOL 201.

BIOL 304 NATURAL HISTORY INTERPRETATION AND PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION (3)

Overview of public education in the biological sciences at local organizations such as zoos, parks, and acquaria. Emphasis in placed on basic ecological concepts and how these concepts are presented to the general public, especially those of school age. Field experience at a local nature center outside of class time is required. Biology majors choosing the secondary school biology and general science teaching concentration or the organismal biology and ecology concentration may enroll for biology major credit. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor.

BIOL 305 ELECTRN MICRSCOPY (4)

Theory, preparation, and application of the electron microscope, including light microscopy. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: 12 credits of biology, PHYS 211, PHYS 212 recommended, and consent of instructor.

BIOL 306 HUMAN ECOLOGY AND SUSTAINABILITY (3)

Relationships and sustainability of human society and natural ecosystems. Relevant scientific, socioeconomic and ethical issues will be examined in such current events as climate change, energy policy and urban planning. Cannot be taken for Biology major credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 105 , 110, 112, 115, 190, 201, 202 or CHEM 104. GenEd II.A or Core: Ethical Issues & Perspectives.

BIOL 307 INTR PALEONTOLGY (4)

Examination of major forms of life with the emphasis on appearances, diversification, and extinctions during the different geologic periods. Prerequisites: minimum 10 credits in Biology.

BIOL 309 GENETICS (4)

Problem-based genetics: Mendelian genetics, genetic linkage and mapping, nucleic acid structure, replication and function, protein synthesis and the genetic code, gene expression and regulation, mutation, repair, and recombination, recombinant DNA technology, and population genetics. Prerequisite: BIOL 201.

BIOL 310 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY (4)

Application of ecological theory to conservation of biological diversity. Exploration of past and present processes leading to and maintaining diversity and how such processes are impacted by human disturbance. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, BIOL 201 or BIOL 202 and 10 units of biology, geography or physical science coursework.

BIOL 312 GENETICS LABORATORY (2)

Laboratory and computer-based applications of Mendelian, Molecular, and Population Genetics. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 313 BIOLOGY OF AGING (3)

Age-related changes in the human body at the cellular through organ system levels. Emphasis on changes in structure and function that alter the ability to maintain homeostasis or a high quality of life. Not for credit toward a Biology major or minor , or M.S. program. Prerequisite: BIOL 103 or BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) & BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214).

BIOL 315 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY (4)

Pathogenesis of bacterial, viral, rickettsial and fungal diseases with emphasis on medically important bacteria and microbiological techniques. Recommended for students pursuing a career in medical sciences. Either this course or BIOL 318, but not both, may count toward Biology major or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 190 or BIOL 201; and CHEM 121/ CHEM 121L (CHEM 105) or CHEM 131/ CHEM 131L (CHEM 110). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 317 MICROTECHNIQUE (4)

Techniques used in preparation of plant and animal tissues for histological examination. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 120 /BIOL 120L, CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L [CHEM 111] (may be taken concurrently).

BIOL 318 MICROBIOLOGY (4)

Biology of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria. Microbial morphology, physiology and genetics and the role of microorganisms in natural processes and disease. Laboratory includes methods of observing, isolating, and identifying bacteria. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Either this course or BIOL 315, but not both, may count toward Biology major or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 201 and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 321 BIOLOGY OF WOMEN (3)

Anatomy and physiology, evolution of reproduction, health related issues, gestation, lactation and child care; the role of women in the work force and sciences, including health issues; contribution of women to global initiatives, including ecofeminism. Not for credit towards the Biology major or minor or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisite: one course fulfilling GenEd II.A. GenEd II.A.

BIOL 322 BIOTECH & SOCIETY (3)

Use of biotechnology in medicine, agriculture, and ecology; applications, ethics and future implications. Not for credit toward Biology major, minor, or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 190 or BIOL 201. Gen Ed II.A.

BIOL 323 GENES,EVOL,MORAL (3)

Biological basis of morality and how those principles can be applied for a better understanding of historical events, current issues facing society, and future perspectives. Prerequisite: BIOL 190 or BIOL 201. GenEd II.A.

BIOL 325 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY (4)

Animal structure and function from molecular to organismic levels. Emphasizing comparative strategies and adaptations of various animal groups in their environments; response of integrated systems to changes in the physical and chemical environment; environmental physiology. Will not count toward Biology major credit for those who successfully completed BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) & BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214). Prerequisites: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 327 DANGEROUS DISEASES (3)

Microorganisms and their roles in diseases. Human impact on the environment relating to emerging disease; biotechnological techniques; ethical issues. Not for credit toward Biology major, minor, or MS in Biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 110, 112, 115, 190 or BIOL 201. GenEd II.A.

BIOL 334 HUMANS, SCIENCE AND THE CHESAPEAKE BAY (3)

Conflicts between human use of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Bay water quality and effects on Bay natural resources; emphasis on understanding the dynamics of this ecosystem and the role science plays in political decisions affecting the Bay. Prerequisites: BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 and BIOL 202.

BIOL 347 MARINE BIOLOGY (3)

Major features of the marine environment emphasizing biological aspects and specific adaptations of marine organisms. Prerequisites: BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208.

BIOL 353 INVERT ZOOLOGY (4)

Aquatic and terrestrial species of phyla from the Protozoa through the Echinodermata with special emphasis on local forms. Economic, ecological, and taxonomic considerations. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 360 HISTOLOGY (4)

Tissues of the vertebrate body. Prerequisite: BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 367 ENDOCRINOLOGY (3)

Endocrine mechanisms regulating homeostasis and functional integrity of animals with emphasis on vertebrates. Prerequisites: BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325, and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111).

BIOL 371 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR (4)

Introduction to modern study of behavior including the development and control of behavior as well as the evolution and adaptive value of behavior. Two recitation hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208; BIOL 202 also strongly recommended.

BIOL 372 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR LAB (1)

Observational and experimental investigations of the development, control and adaptive value of animal behavior in both laboratory and field. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 371 (may be taken concurrently).

BIOL 381 WRITING IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (3)

Practicum on writing in the scientific style appropriate for biology. Includes detailed analysis and critical written summation of primary research literature in biology. Not for major or minor credit or M.S. degree in Biology. Requires grade of C or better to fulfill Core or GenEd requirement. Prerequisites: 60 completed units including a minimum of 16 units completed in biology, or permission of the instructor. Core: Advanced Writing Seminar or GenEd I.D.

BIOL 382 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND SERVICE LEARNING IN THE TROPICS (3)

Designed for majors in Science or Education with an interest in Environmental Education; course work will take place in Costa Rica; emphasis on tropical forest ecology concepts applicable to K-12 environmental education and management of tropical natural resources. Cross-listed as ENVS 382. Prerequisites: minimum Junior status and consent of the instructor.

BIOL 389 CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOLOGY (3)

Current directions of research in a major area of the biological sciences. Sufficient background will be studied for the appreciation of the significance of these developments. May not be repeated for major credit when offered under a different topic. Prerequisite: BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 402 GENERAL ECOLOGY (4)

Effects of the abiotic environment on distribution and abundance of organisms; organization of biological communities; ecosystems and global change; application of ecological principles to natural resource management. Some daylong trips required. Prerequisites: BIOL 202; and BIOL 205, BIOL 207, or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 403 ADV GENETICS (3)

Emphasis on the molecular basis of gene action. Discussion of current work and methods related to the problem of gene structure, function, and mutation including the translation and regulation of genetic information. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 405 MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION AND CONSERVATION (4)

Examination of applications of modern molecular techniques in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation biology. Emphasis will be on how application of these techniques provides greater insight in these areas of study. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 406 LIMNOLOGY (4)

Ecology of streams and lakes: physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect communities of freshwater organisms; laboratory and field experience in methods used to analyze aquatic systems. Prerequisites: BIOL 205, BIOL 207 or BIOL 208; and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 408 CELL BIOLOGY (4)

The molecular and morphological organization of the cell in relationship to cellular activities with emphasis on eukaryotic cells. Average of three laboratory or discussion hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 309.

BIOL 409 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (4)

Molecular basis of genetic inheritance and gene expression. DNA and RNA structure, DNA replication, sources and mechanisms of mutation and repair. Genome structure and organization in viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Average of two discussion hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 410 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY (2)

Modern molecular genetic research techniques. The theoretical and practical considerations of the organisms and enzymes used in molecular biology, gene cloning strategies, DNA sequencing and analysis, analysis of genome structure and gene expression, gene subcloning, and transgenic organisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 309 (may be taken concurrently). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 411 CANCER BIOLOGY (3)

Current concepts and knowledge of cancer, including cancer research and treatment. Will utilize lecture, review of journal articles to examine both the clinical and molecular aspects underlying cancer development with the aim of understanding how changes in the normal growth and division processes lead to tumorigenesis. Topics of discussion include cancer development and progression, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, effects of chemicals and radiation, cell cycle control, cell signaling, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell migration/metastasis, cancer prevention, and the immune response to cancer. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 412 CELL BIOLOGY LABORATORY (2)

Current laboratory techniques used for the study of cell structure and function. Theoretical and practical considerations for the growth and maintenance of eukaryotic cells and the analysis of gene expression, protein interactions, cell signaling and cell-cell contacts. Prerequisite: BIOL 309. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 413 EVOLUTION (3)

Concepts of biological evolution, the history of the development of these concepts, and current topics in revolutionary biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 205, BIOL 207 or BIOL 208.

BIOL 415 BIOTECHNOLOGY (3)

Application of molecular biology in the areas of agriculture, medicine, and ecology/environmental biology. Government regulations, ethical implications and patent issues will also be addressed. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 419 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY (3)

Biology and ecology of microorganisms in natural and anthropogenic environments. Culture-based and molecular methods for detection, evaluation, and manipulation of microorganisms and their metabolism. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 (or permission of instructor), BIOL 309, CHEM 132, CHEM 132L; BIOL 318 (or BIOL 215) recommended.

BIOL 420 MICROBIOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE (3)

Cell and molecular biology of microorganisms that cause life-threatening disease. Topics include in-depth explorations of bacteria, protozoa, helminths, viruses, and fungi that infect humans, plants, and animals. Prerequisite: BIOL 309 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 421 IMMUNOLOGY (4)

Cells and organs of the immune system, antibody-antigen interactions, immunoglobulin gene organization, B-cell maturation and activation, Major Histocompatibility Complex, cytokines, complement, inflammation, hypersensitivity, vaccines, autoimmunity, immunodeficiencies with recitation section for problem solving and demonstrations. Prerequisites: BIOL 309 or BIOL 315; Recommended: BIOL 408 or BIOL 409.

BIOL 425 DISSECTION OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY (2)

Gross anatomical dissection of the human upper extremity including the muscles, nerves and blood vessels which supply the appendage. Special emphasis will be placed on development of techniques which assure careful and accurate dissection. Offered only in minimester. Prerequisites: BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) and consent of instructor. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 427 NEUROMUSCULAR MECHANISMS OF THE UPPER BODY (2)

Gross anatomy of the human upper extremity and cranial nerves. Upper extremity emphasis includes muscle action, innervation, and major spinal cord pathways. Olfactory, optic, auditory, and vestibular functions of cranial nerves are stressed. One lecture and two laboratory periods per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) and consent of the instructor. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 428 VIROLOGY (3)

Cell and molecular biology of viruses. General virology, including pathogenesis and mortality, interaction with the immune system, and some medically relevant viruses. Prerequisite: BIOL 315, BIOL 408, BIOL 409 or BIOL 410.

BIOL 431 HORTICULTURE (4)

Plant culture and application to developing desirable plantings on home grounds or in public places with examples of appropriate types of plants for specific situations. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 205 or BIOL 208.

BIOL 432 VASCULAR PLANT TAXONOMY (4)

A study of the history and principles of vascular plant systematics with laboratory time devoted to collection and identification of plants in the local flora. An average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 205 or BIOL 208 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 435 PLANT ECOLOGY (4)

Environmental factors and processes which control plant distribution, plant communities, and vegetational biomes of North America. An average of 3 laboratory hours per week with 2 required 3-day weekend field trips and a Saturday field trip emphasizing examples from Maryland and the Mid-Atlantic states. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 205 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 436 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY (3)

Life functions of plants as related to structure at all levels: cells, organs, and the complete organism. Consideration of the interaction of environmental and genetic factors on plant metabolism. Prerequisites: BIOL 205 or BIOL 208 and CHEM 131 / CHEM 131L (CHEM 111); CHEM 330 recommended.

BIOL 444 WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT (3)

Comprehensive introduction to the management, ecology, and behavior of wildlife species. Although regional species will often be used as examples, the course will emphasize principles that can be applied on a world-wide basis. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 or consent of the instructor; BIOL 309 and 402 strongly recommended.

BIOL 446 TROPICAL ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION (3)

Evolution and ecology of tropical ecosystems. Mechanisms that maintain tropical diversity, species interactions, anthropogenic impacts, and conservation strategies. Prerequisites: BIOL 202; either BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 447 TROPICAL FIELD ECOLOGY (4)

Field course set in the tropical rainforest. Includes exploration of different tropical ecosystems and training in techniques to carry out independent field research projects. Prerequisite: BIOL 202 and BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 450 ECOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3)

Examining diversity of natural products involved in biochemical interactions between plants, animals (including insects, humans, and other herbivores) and microbial flora. Effects that changes in the chemistry of these compounds have on function in ecological systems. Not open to students who have taken CHEM 450. Prerequisites: CHEM 330 or CHEM 331, and BIOL 201 or BIOL 202.

BIOL 452 WETLAND ECOLOGY (4)

Wetland ecology and wetland management, with special focus on wetlands of the Mid-Atlantic region. Emphasis is on biological, physical, chemical, and ecological aspects of wetlands. Course also deals with valuation, classification, delineation and management of wetlands for biotic resources and water management. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Five mandatory Saturday field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 202; and BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 455 FISH BIOLOGY (4)

Evolutionary history, functional biology, ecology, and conservation of fishes. Weekend field trips required. Prerequisites: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111); BIOL 325 recommended. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 456 ORNITHOLOGY (4)

Evolutionary history, morphology, physiology, behavior and ecology of birds. One day-long weekend field trip and several early morning weekday field trips required. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 or consent of the instructor. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 458 MAMMALOGY (4)

Evolution, comparative morphology, systematics, and distribution of mammals. Representative life histories are considered. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 461 ENTOMOLOGY (4)

Laboratory and field course in insects. Identification and recognition of the more common families and orders, and a study of their structure, behavior, ecology, economic importance, and control. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 or consent of instructor. Lab/class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 463 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (3)

Embryonic development of animals, including differentiation, morphogenesis, pattern formation, and organogenesis. Emphasis on cellular and molecular mechanisms governing these processes. Prerequisites: BIOL 309 and either BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325.

BIOL 465 MAMMAL PHYSIOL (4)

An advanced physiology course that draws heavily upon knowledge gained in earlier courses to understand the aspects of organismal function unique to mammals. The course attempts to integrate all levels of organismal processes, ranging from molecular phenomena to whole animal function. The laboratories emphasize hands-on learning and experiences with live animals. Minimum of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 222/222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325, and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111). CHEM 332 and CHEM 351 recommended. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 467 HERPETOLOGY (4)

Systematic survey of the modern reptiles and amphibians. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of morphological and behavioral traits which have enabled the reptiles and amphibians to successfully exploit their individual habitats. Laboratory includes systematic classification, student seminars and field work. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 469 COMPARATIVE ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY (4)

Functions, interactions, and regulation of organ systems in animals and their roles in sensory perception and integration, movement, oxygen utilization, energy procurement, temperature regulation, and water metabolism. Prerequisites: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208; and BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325; and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111).

BIOL 470 ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY (4)

Physiological topics discussed at the molecular, cellular, organ, organ system, and whole organism levels. Emphasis on integrating knowledge gained in prerequisite physiology courses and recent discoveries. The recitation component will emphasize the scientific method, data interpretation, and quantitative skills. Topics may include: osmoregulation, gas exchange, general and specific metabolism, thermoregulation, locomotion and regulation via the neural and endocrine systems. Not open to those who have successfully completed BIOL 465 or BIOL 469. Prerequisites: BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325, CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111) [CHEM 332 and BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 recommended]. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 471 ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (2)

Hands-on investigation of physiological principles at the cellular, organ, organ system and whole organism levels. Course meets for 4 hours once per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 470 (may be taken concurrently).

BIOL 481 DIR READ:BIOL (1-3)

Independent reading in an area selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. May not be applied toward the Biology major or Biology minor, or M.S. degree in biology. May be repeated for a maximum of 3 credits. Prerequisite: a minimum of 10 credits in biology and prior written consent of instructor.

BIOL 483 WORKSHOP IN BIOL (2)

Intensive study of a specific topic or technique in the biological sciences. Topic varies with instructor. May be repeated once provided a different topic is covered. Prerequisite: one biology course and consent of instructor.

BIOL 484 SEMINAR IN ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, CONSERVATION AND BEHAVIOR (1)

Discussion and analysis of current research in ecology, evolution, conservation biology, and animal behavior. May be repeated for a maximum of 2 units. Prerequisites: 12 credit hours in Biology, including BIOL 202, or consent of instructor.

BIOL 485 SEMINAR IN APPLIED BIOTECHNOLOGY (1)

Current research articles in cell biology and microbiology are reviewed. May be repeated for a maximum of 2 credits.Prerequisites: 12 hours in biology, including one of the following: BIOL 309, BIOL 315, BIOL 318, BIOL 408 or BIOL 409.

BIOL 486 BIOLOGY MAJORS SEMINAR (1)

Specific topic examined at the molecular, cellular, organismic and ecological levels of organization. Students will be required to present an oral and written report on an aspect of the topic. Prerequisites: BIOL 202, and (BIOL 205, BIOL 207 or BIOL 208); Junior/Senior standing.

BIOL 490 INDEPENDENT RESEARCH (1-3)

Active student participation in original investigation / research project with a faculty mentor. Not for Major or Minor credit. May be repeated for a maximum of 9 units. Prerequisite: Consent of the instructor. Graded S/U.

BIOL 491 ELECTIVE IN INDEPENDENT RESEARCH (3)

Active student participation in original investigation / research project with a faculty mentor. Project culminates in public oral or poster presentation or equivalent. Repeatable for up to 6 units, 3 of which may be used as the equivalent of a 3-unit Biology elective. May not be used toward Biology Minor. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

BIOL 493 INTERNSHIP IN BIOLOGY (3)

Practical application of biology in businesses, industries, and public and private agencies. Not for major or minor credit. May be repeated once for credit to a maximum of 6 units. Prerequisites: 2.75 GPA, junior or senior standing, major in Biology, and consent of the biology internship coordinator. A minimum of 11 credits in Biology completed at Towson University is recommended. Special permit and co-op fee required. Graded S/U.

BIOL 494 TRAVEL STUDY (1-3)

A detailed investigation of field-oriented problems in biology away from the Towson University campus. Locations and topics to be selected by the department and instructors sponsoring the program. May be repeated for a maximum of 3 units. Prerequisite: BIOL 117, BIOL 120, BIOL 190, BIOL 201 or equivalent and consent of instructor.

BIOL 499 HONORS SENIOR THESIS IN BIOLOGY (3)

Writing of an honors thesis based on individual research done under the direction of a faculty member. Public presentation and defense of thesis required. May not be used toward a Biology Minor or M.S. degree in Biology. Honors College. Prerequisites: BIOL 491 and consent of instructor.