# Major in Mathematics - Secondary Education Concentration

Mathematics majors in the Secondary Education Concentration are eligible, upon graduation, to apply for certification to teach mathematics for grades 7-12 in the state of Maryland.

The mathematics secondary education concentration requires 117–122 units for completion. Students must complete 89-91 required units in content and Towson UTeach courses and 27-31 units in Core Curriculum courses not satisfied by the major, earning a grade equivalent of 2.00 or higher in each course.

## Standards for Teacher Education

The Teacher Education Executive Board, representing all initial teacher education programs at Towson University, utilizes the following **minimum** requirements as conditions for admission into teacher education programs, maintaining candidate status and formal entry into the capstone internship. Programs may include additional requirements for admission into the program and/or the capstone internship.

The College of Education admits students either as freshmen or as undergraduate transfer students from accredited, post-secondary institutions. During the freshman and sophomore years, students are generally engaged in pre-professional courses or courses that fulfill Core Curriculum requirements, as well as all identified prerequisites (e.g., specific and sequential courses in Core Curriculum) for admission to COE screened majors and programs.

All College of Education undergraduate programs are screened majors. As an integral part of the teaching/learning experience, students work with advisers in a strategic planning process across all years at TU. Accordingly, to support student success, all COE students are required to confer prior to registration each term with their assigned advisers.

**I. PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION TO ALL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS**

- Complete a notarized self-disclosure criminal background form to be submitted to the major department with the application.
- Submit an application for formal admission to the program. Students seeking admission to teacher education programs must contact their department chairperson or program coordinator by 45 credit hours for program-specific procedures and requirements for admission to professional education programs.
__Document a minimum__GPA of at least 3.00 during the most recent two years of the candidate’s general education. A grade of PS (Pass) is not accepted for courses required in the major/minor per the undergraduate catalog. AP credits can be applied towards requirements in the major/minor, but not towards the GPA.

**II. REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTAINING CANDIDATE STATUS**

- Maintain a semester GPA of 3.00 in required education courses for all programs.
- At the department’s discretion, candidates who do not meet the above GPA requirement may continue for one additional semester under probationary status, but must meet the 3.00 GPA requirement at the end of the probationary period. If the GPA requirement is not met at the end of the probationary period, the candidate would be dismissed from the program.

- Obtain a grade of C or better in academic major coursework applicable only in programs requiring an academic major. (Middle School; Secondary; Art, Dance, Health, Music, World Languages, Physical Education).
- Exhibit behavior that is consistent with the University’s Code of Student Conduct, the Educator Preparation Program’s Professional Behavior Policy, and established professional practice in educational and clinical settings. (see COE Behavior Policy)

**III. PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ENTRY INTO CAPSTONE INTERNSHIP FOR ALL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS.**

- Complete a criminal background check as required by the school system in which the internship is located.
- Complete all required coursework.
- Submit an application in Tk20 by Watermark for full-time internship.

*The Standards were revised and approved in February 1996, May 1998, February 2000, May 2007, May 2008, April 2009, December 2011, November 2012, February 2014, October 2014, February 2015, November 2015, May 2019, and February 2020.*

### Mathematics Major Requirements

All Mathematics majors must take the following required courses.

Code | Title | Units |
---|---|---|

Required Courses | ||

MATH 265 | ELEMENTARY LINEAR ALGEBRA | 4 |

MATH 267 | INTRODUCTION TO ABSTRACT MATHEMATICS | 4 |

MATH 273 | CALCULUS I | 4 |

MATH 274 | CALCULUS II | 4 |

MATH 275 | CALCULUS III | 4 |

Total Units | 20 |

### Mathematics Secondary Education Requirements

In addition to the 20 units of common requirements for all Mathematics majors, the Mathematics Secondary Education concentration requires 29-31 units of concentration requirements and 40 units of Towson UTeach course requirements for a total of 89-91 units. MATH 423, MATH 426, SEMS 498 and minimum four additional upper-level courses in the major must be taken at Towson University.

Minimum requirements for admission into teacher education programs, maintaining candidate status and formal entry into the capstone internship are outlined on the Standards for Teacher Education page in the Undergraduate Catalog.

Code | Title | Units |
---|---|---|

Required Courses | ||

MATH 223 | PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS | 2 |

MATH 330 | INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL METHODS | 4 |

MATH 353 | EUCLIDEAN AND NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRIES | 3 |

MATH 369 | INTRODUCTION TO ABSTRACT ALGEBRA | 4 |

MATH 420 | APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS | 3 |

MATH 423 | TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS ^{1} | 3 |

PHYS 241 | GENERAL PHYSICS I CALCULUS-BASED | 4 |

Electives | ||

Select two of the following: | 6-8 | |

APPLIED COMBINATORICS | ||

TEACHING ADVANCED PLACEMENT CALCULUS FOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS | ||

or PHYS 242 | GENERAL PHYSICS II CALCULUS-BASED | |

PROBABILITY | ||

REAL ANALYSIS I | ||

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS | ||

GRAPH THEORY | ||

NUMBER THEORY | ||

ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES | ||

COMPLEX ANALYSIS | ||

Total Units | 29-31 |

### Towson UTeach Course Requirements

Code | Title | Units |
---|---|---|

Introductory Towson UTeach Courses | ||

Students must complete either | ||

SEMS 110 & SEMS 120 | INTRODUCTION TO STEM TEACHING I: INQUIRY APPROACHES TO TEACHING and INTRODUCTION TO STEM TEACHING II: INQUIRY-BASED LESSON DESIGN | 2 |

or SEMS 130 | INTRODUCTION TO STEM TEACHING I & II COMBINED | |

*Permission of Towson UTeach Department required to take SEMS 130. | ||

Towson UTeach Courses | ||

SEMS 230 | KNOWING AND LEARNING | 3 |

SEMS 240 | CLASSROOMS INTERACTIONS | 3 |

SEMS 250 | PERSPECTIVES IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS | 3 |

SEMS 370 | PROJECT-BASED INSTRUCTION | 3 |

SEMS 498 | INTERNSHIP IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE SECONDARY EDUCATION ^{1} | 3 |

SCED 460 | USING READING AND WRITING IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS | 4 |

SCED 461 | TEACHING READING IN THE SECONDARY CONTENT AREAS | 3 |

Towson UTeach Courses - Mathematics | ||

MATH 310 | FUNCTIONS AND MODELING FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS | 3 |

MATH 426 | INTERNSHIP IN SECONDARY EDUCATION - MATHEMATICS ^{1} | 12 |

MATH 430 | SEMINAR IN INTERNSHIP | 1 |

Total Units | 40 |

^{1} | MATH 423, MATH 426 and SEMS 498 must be taken at Towson University. |

### Departmental Honors Program

The Department of Mathematics offers a departmental honors program for students who demonstrate exemplary abilities in mathematics. The program provides students with an opportunity to work closely with faculty mentors in an individual program of research, directed readings and independent study.

Graduation with departmental honors requires a minimum overall cumulative GPA of 3.33, and successful completion of a two-course research sequence and an honors thesis in mathematics (MATH 499). Departmental honors are designated on the graduate's transcript and diploma upon successful completion of MATH 499.

Code | Title | Units |
---|---|---|

Required Coursework for Departmental Honors in Mathematics | ||

Research Sequence, Select one of the following: | 6 | |

READINGS IN MATHEMATICS and RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS | ||

READINGS IN MATH EDUCATION and INDEPENDENT STUDY: RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION | ||

APPLIED MATHEMATICS LABORATORY I and APPLIED MATHEMATICS LABORATORY II | ||

Thesis Requirement | ||

MATH 499 | HONORS THESIS IN MATHEMATICS | 1 |

Total Units | 7 |

## Suggested Four-Year Plan

Based on course availability and student needs and preferences, the selected sequences will probably vary from those presented below. Students should consult with their adviser to make the most appropriate elective choices.

Freshman | |||
---|---|---|---|

Term 1 | Units | Term 2 | Units |

MATH 273 | 4 | MATH 265 | 4 |

SEMS 110 | 1 | MATH 274 (Core 3) | 4 |

Core 1 (or Core 2) | 3 | SEMS 120 | 1 |

Core 4 | 3 | Core 2 (or Core 1) | 3 |

Core 6 | 3 | Core 11 | 3 |

Core 10 | 3 | ||

17 | 15 | ||

Sophomore | |||

Term 1 | Units | Term 2 | Units |

MATH 223 | 2 | PHYS 241 (Core 7) | 4 |

MATH 267 | 4 | MATH 369 | 4 |

MATH 275 | 4 | SEMS 240 | 3 |

SEMS 230 | 3 | Core 13 | 3 |

Core 12 | 3 | Core 14 | 3 |

16 | 17 | ||

Junior | |||

Term 1 | Units | Term 2 | Units |

MATH 330 | 4 | MATH 310 (Core 9) | 3 |

MATH 353 | 3 | MATH 420 | 3 |

SCED 460 | 4 | MATH Elective | 3-4 |

SEMS 250 (Core 5) | 3 | SEMS 370 | 3 |

Core 8 | 3-4 | ||

17-18 | 12-13 | ||

Senior | |||

Term 1 | Units | Term 2 | Units |

MATH 423 | 3 | MATH 426 | 12 |

MATH Elective | 3-4 | MATH 430 | 1 |

SCED 461 | 3 | ||

SEMS 498 | 3 | ||

12-13 | 13 | ||

Total Units 119-122 |

### Standard 1: Knowledge of Mathematical Problem Solving

Candidates know, understand, and apply the process of mathematical problem solving.

Indicators

1.1 Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

1.2 Solve problems that arise in mathematics and those involving mathematics in other contexts.

1.3 Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.

1.4 Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving.

### Standard 2: Knowledge of Reasoning and Proof

Candidates reason, construct, and evaluate mathematical arguments and develop an appreciation for mathematical rigor and inquiry.

Indicators

2.1 Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics.

2.2 Make and investigate mathematical conjectures.

2.3 Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs.

2.4 Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.

### Standard 3: Knowledge of Mathematical Communication

Candidates communicate their mathematical thinking orally and in writing to peers, faculty, and others.

Indicators

3.1 Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, faculty, and others.

3.2 Use the language of mathematics to express ideas precisely.

3.3 Organize mathematical thinking through communication.

3.4 Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others.

### Standard 4: Knowledge of Mathematical Connections

Candidates recognize, use, and make connections between and among mathematical ideas and in contexts outside mathematics to build mathematical understanding.

Indicators

4.1 Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas.

4.2 Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

4.3 Demonstrate how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole.

### Standard 5: Knowledge of Mathematical Representation

Candidates use varied representations of mathematical ideas to support and deepen student’s mathematical understanding.

Indicators

5.1 Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.

5.2 Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

5.3 Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems.

### Standard 6: Knowledge of Technology

Candidates embrace technology as an essential tool for teaching and learning mathematics.Indicator

6.1 Use knowledge of mathematics to select and use appropriate technological tools, such as but not limited to, spreadsheets, dynamic graphing tools, computer algebra systems, dynamic statistical packages, graphing calculators, data-collection devices, and presentation software.

### Standard 7: Dispositions

Candidates support a positive disposition toward mathematical processes and mathematical learning.

Indicators

7.1 Attention to equity

7.2 Use of stimulating curricula

7.3 Effective teaching

7.4 Commitment to learning with understanding

7.5 Use of various assessments

7.6 Use of various teaching tools including technology

Pedagogy (Standard 8)

In addition to knowing students as learners, mathematics teacher candidates should develop knowledge of and ability to use and evaluate instructional strategies and classroom organizational models, ways to represent mathematical concepts and procedures, instructional materials and resources, ways to promote discourse, and means of assessing student understanding. This section on pedagogy is to address this knowledge and skill.

### Standard 8: Knowledge of Mathematics Pedagogy

Candidates possess a deep understanding of how students learn mathematics and of the pedagogical knowledge specific to mathematics teaching and learning.

Indicators

8.1 Selects, uses, and determines suitability of the wide variety of available mathematics curricula and teaching materials for all students including those with special needs such as the gifted, challenged and speakers of other languages.

8.2 Selects and uses appropriate concrete materials for learning mathematics.

8.3 Uses multiple strategies, including listening to and understanding the ways students think about mathematics, to assess students mathematical knowledge.

8.4 Plans lessons, units and courses that address appropriate learning goals, including those that address local, state, and national mathematics standards and legislative mandates.

8.5 Participates in professional mathematics organizations and uses their print and on-line resources.

8.6 Demonstrates knowledge of research results in the teaching and learning of mathematics.

8.7 Uses knowledge of different types of instructional strategies in planning mathematics lessons.

8.8 Demonstrates the ability to lead classes in mathematical problem solving and in developing in-depth conceptual understanding, and to help students develop and test generalizations.

8.9 Develop lessons that use technology’s potential for building understanding of mathematical concepts and developing important mathematical ideas.

Content (Standards 9-15)

Candidates comfort with, and confidence in, their knowledge of mathematics affects both what they teach and how they teach it. Knowing mathematics includes understanding specific concepts and procedures as well as the process of doing mathematics. That knowledge is the subject of the following standards.

### Standard 9: Knowledge of Number and Operation

Candidates demonstrate computational proficiency, including a conceptual understanding of numbers, ways of representing number, relationships among number and number systems, and meanings of operations.

Indicators

9.1 Analyze and explain the mathematics that underlies the procedures used for operations involving integers, rational, real, and complex numbers.

9.2 Use properties involving number and operations, mental computation, and computational estimation.

9.3 Provide equivalent representations of fractions, decimals, and percents.

9.4 Create, solve, and apply proportions.

9.5 Apply the fundamental ideas of number theory.

9.6 Make sense of large and small numbers and use scientific notation.

9.7 Compare and contrast properties of numbers and number systems.

9.8 Represent, use, and apply complex numbers.

9.9 Recognize matrices and vectors as systems that have some of the properties of the real number system.

9.10 Demonstrate knowledge of the historical development of number and number systems including contributions from diverse cultures.

### Standard 10: Knowledge of Different Perspectives on Algebra

Candidates emphasize relationships among quantities including functions, ways of representing mathematical relationships, and the analysis of change.

Indicators

10.1 Analyze patterns, relations, and functions of one and two variables.

10.2 Apply fundamental ideas of linear algebra.

10.3 Apply the major concepts of abstract algebra to justify algebraic operations and formally analyze algebraic structures.

10.4 Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.

10.5 Use technological tools to explore algebraic ideas and representations of information and in solving problems.

10.6 Demonstrate knowledge of the historical development of algebra including contributions from diverse cultures.

### Standard 11: Knowledge of Geometries

Candidates use spatial visualization and geometric modeling to explore and analyze geometric shapes, structures, and their properties.

Indicators

11.1 Demonstrate knowledge of core concepts and principles of Euclidean and non- Euclidean geometries in two and three dimensions from both formal and informal perspectives.

11.2 Exhibit knowledge of the role of axiomatic systems and proofs in geometry.

11.3 Analyze characteristics and relationships of geometric shapes and structures.

11.4 Build and manipulate representations of two- and three- dimensional objects and visualize objects from different perspectives.

11.5 Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry, vectors, and other representational systems.

11.6 Apply transformations and use symmetry, similarity, and congruence to analyze mathematical situations.

11.7 Use concrete models, drawings, and dynamic geometric software to explore geometric ideas and their applications in real-world contexts.

11.8 Demonstrate knowledge of the historical development of Euclidean and non- Euclidean geometries including contributions from diverse cultures.

### Standard 12: Knowledge of Calculus

Candidates demonstrate a conceptual understanding of limit, continuity, differentiation, and integration and a thorough background in the techniques and application of the calculus.

Indicators

12.1 Demonstrate a conceptual understanding of and procedural facility with basic calculus concepts.

12.2 Apply concepts of function, geometry, and trigonometry in solving problems involving calculus.

12.3 Use the concepts of calculus and mathematical modeling to represent and solve problems taken from real-world contexts.

12.4 Use technological tools to explore and represent fundamental concepts of calculus.

12.5 Demonstrate knowledge of the historical development of calculus including contributions from diverse cultures.

### Standard 13: Knowledge of Discrete Mathematics

Candidates apply the fundamental ideas of discrete mathematics in the formulation and solution of problems.

Indicators

13.1 Demonstrate knowledge of basic elements of discrete mathematics such as graph theory, recurrence relations, finite difference approaches, linear programming, and combinatorics.

13.2 Apply the fundamental ideas of discrete mathematics in the formulation and solution of problems arising from real-world situations.

13.3 Use technological tools to solve problems involving the use of discrete structures and the application of algorithms.

13.4 Demonstrate knowledge of the historical development of discrete mathematics including contributions from diverse cultures.

### Standard 14: Knowledge of Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability

Candidates demonstrate an understanding of concepts and practices related to data analysis, statistics, and probability.

Indicators

14.1 Design investigations, collect data, and use a variety of ways to display data and interpret data representations that may include bivariate data, conditional probability and geometric probability.

14.2 Use appropriate methods such as random sampling or random assignment of treatments to estimate population characteristics, test conjectured relationships among variables, and analyze data.

14.3 Use appropriate statistical methods and technological tools to describe shape and analyze spread and center.

14.4 Use statistical inference to draw conclusions from data.

14.5 Identify misuses of statistics and invalid conclusions from probability.

14.6 Draw conclusions involving uncertainty by using hands-on and computer-based simulation for estimating probabilities and gathering data to make inferences and conclusions.

14.7 Determine and interpret confidence intervals.

14.8 Demonstrate knowledge of the historical development of statistics and probability including contributions from diverse cultures.

### Standard 15: Knowledge of Measurement

Candidates apply and use measurement concepts and tools.

Indicators

15.1 Recognize the common representations and uses of measurement and choose tools and units for measuring.15.2 Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements and their application in a variety of contexts.

15.3 Completes error analysis through determining the reliability of the numbers obtained from measures.

15.4 Demonstrate knowledge of the historical development of measurement and measurement systems including contributions from diverse cultures.

Field-Based Experiences (Standard 16)

The development of mathematics teacher candidates should include opportunities to examine the nature of mathematics, how it should be taught and how students learn mathematics; observe and analyze a range of approaches to mathematics teaching and learning, focusing on the tasks, discourse, environment and assessment; and work with a diverse range of students individually, in small groups, and in large class settings.

### Standard 16: Field-Based Experiences

Candidates complete field-based experiences in mathematics classrooms.

Indicators

16.1 Engage in a sequence of planned opportunities prior to student teaching that includes observing and participating in both middle and secondary mathematics classrooms under the supervision of experienced and highly qualified teachers.

16.2 Experience full-time student teaching in secondary mathematics that is supervised by a highly qualified teacher and a university or college supervisor with secondary mathematics teaching experience.

16.3 Demonstrate the ability to increase students’ knowledge of mathematics.